Continued monitoring and further evaluations of mass balance budgets are thus needed. Tettere planting gir høyere volumproduksjon tidlig i bestandets liv. Organic and mineral horizons were incubated at different temperatures to estimate potential C and N mineraliza- tion, and deep sequencing of the ITS2 barcode region of fungal DNA was performed on the samples. The logging residues amounted to 2.2-2.4 kg C m-2 At Gaupen, the mean in situ soil respiration rates increased following harvest with all treatments, but were significantly higher in WTH-pile and SOH relative to the WTH- removal areas in the first year as well as the fourth year of treatment. H., Akselsson, C., Bengtsson, P., Belyazid, S., Wallander, H., Lazdins, A., Libiete, Z. Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen. The results agree well with results from other field measurements reported in the scientific literature. Moreover, fungal exposure to the reaction zone under laboratory conditions induced oxaloacetase and oxalate accumulation, whereas heartwood induced a decarboxylase gene involved in degradation of oxalate.

I følge resultatkontrollen i 2013 hadde 29 % av det totale foryngelsesarealet et plantetall under anbefalt nivå i bærekraftforskriften. Influence of different tree-harvesting intensities on forest soil carbon stocks in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems. The former rates included aboveground decomposing needles and twigs but excluded coarser branches. Wang, Y., Haugslien, S., Almvik, M., Clarke, N., Øgaard, A. The excess level of cations in defense xylem inactivates pathogen-secreted oxalate through precipitation and, presumably, only after cation neutralization can oxalic acid participate in lignocellulose degradation. Availability, accessibility, quality and comparability of monitoring data for European forests for use in air pollution and climate change science.

The site-specific variation of x SO4 concentrations in runoff was most strongly explained by deposition. In this study, we assessed the response of soil solution chemistry in mineral horizons of European forests to these changes. By means of multivariate statistics, we found increasing trends in DOC concentrations with increasing mean nitrate (NO3−) deposition and increasing trends in DOC concentrations with decreasing mean sulfate (SO42−) deposition, with the magnitude of these relationships depending on plot deposition history. Managing Forests to Promote Environmental Services, København. Most P fertilizers applied to land are sorbed onto soil particles, so research on improving plant uptake of less easily available P is important. There is disagreement on the likely short-term effects of biomass harvesting for bioenergy on carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems (see above under 5.2) and this needs to be further studied.

Climatic variables and deposition explained the variation of inorganic N concentrations in runoff at single sites poorly, and as yet there are no clear signs of a consistent deposition-driven or climate-driven increase in inorganic N exports in the catchments. Trends in p H, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), major ions, total aluminium (Al tot ) and dissolved organic carbon were determined for the period 1995–2012. Temporal trends in soil solution acidity indicators in European forests (Lecture). While the attribution of increasing trends in DOC to the reduction of SO42− deposition could be confirmed in low to medium N deposition areas, in agreement with observations in surface waters, this was not the case in high N deposition areas. Wang, Y., Almvik, M., Clarke, N., Eich-Greatorex, S., Øgaard, A. In the current study, we investigated the responses in root morphology and root-exuded organic acids (OAs) to low available P (1 m M P) and sufficient P (50 m M P) in barley, canola and micropropagated seedlings of potato— three important food crops with divergent root traits, using a hydroponic plant growth system. In their present form, the binding EU sustainability criteria for biofuels/bioliquids should not be extended to solid/gaseous biomass used for electricity and heating/cooling.

At 10–20 cm, ANC increased in acid-sensitive soils (base saturation ≤10%) indicating a recovery, but ANC decreased in soils with base saturation 4.5). Can forest harvesting for bioenergy be done sustainably? Sustainable Bioenergy Development: One Size Does Not Fit All, Oslo. At the wetter, steeper site in western Norway, peaks were often observed also at WTH-removal plots, which might reflect within-site differences in water pathways due largely to site topography. Rhizosphere citrate and malate showed negative and positive correlations (P Schmitz, A., Hansen, K., Michel, A., Prescher, A., Sanders, T. Long-term sulphate and inorganic nitrogen mass balance budgets in European ICP Integrated Monitoring catchments (1990–2012). doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.20 tre i en seng datingside Empirical evidence based on integrated environmental monitoring including physical, chemical and biological variables is essential for evaluating the ecosystem benefits of costly emission reduction policies. Contrasting impact of whole-tree-harvesting on chemical quality of plant foliage in coastal versus inland forest. Modelling climate change effects on the chlorine cycle in a Norway spruce forest soil (Lecture). Network “Effects of bioenergy production from forests and agriculture on ecosystem services in Nordic and Baltic landscapes” (Lecture). The effects of rhizosphere organic anions varied among species and they appeared to play minor roles in improving P availability and uptake. Differences between the two harvesting methods at both sites were mainly due to the residue piles assembled during whole-tree harvesting and the physical damage made during the harvesting of residues in these piles. speed dating london sylteagurk Managing Forests to Promote Environmental Services: Climate change adaptation and mitigation, water protection, biodiversity conservation, and soil quality maintenance, University of Copenhagen. I., Nordbakken, J., Lange, H., Røsberg, I., Kjønaas, O. Effects of clear-cut harvesting on ground vegetation have been investigated at two Norway spruce sites in southern east and western Norway, respectively, differing in climate and topography. Some studies have shown that this increase is short-lived, while others have found a longer-term increase.

In addition, the molar ratio of Bc to Al tot either did not change or decreased. nye dating-nettsteder som knusk Air pollution, climate change and forest ecosystems: evidence for effects, adaptation, and mitigation. G., Seidling, W., Clarke, N., Verstraeten, A., Karlsson, G. Inorganic nitrogen deposition to forest ecosystems in Europe - spatial patterns and temporal changes in the past 15 years (Lecture). Vuorenmaa, J., Augustaitis, A., Beudert, B., Clarke, N., Wit, H.d., Dirnböck, T., Frey, J., Forsius, M., Indriksone, I., Kleemola, S., Kobler, J., Kram, P., Lindroos, A., Lundin, L., Ruoho-Airola, T., Ukonmaanaho, L. The international multidisciplinary ICP IM (International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems) programme studies the integrated effects of air pollution and climate change on ecosystems in unmanaged and calibrated forested catchments. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 31(6): 541-545. Effects of bioenergy extraction on visual preferences in boreal forests: a review of surveys from Finland, Sweden and Norway. ICP Forests Executive Report, 5-9.: 5Clarke, N., Lachmanová, Z. Tracing air pollution and climate change effects on forest ecosystems: trend and risk assessments, Luxembourg. SNS and NKJ Matchmaking Day For Forestry, Agriculture, Environment and the Energy Sectors, Vantaa.Økland, T. The presence of the residue piles had a clear negative impact on both species numbers and cover. Experimental plots at these two sites were either harvested conventionally (stem-only harvest, SOH), leaving harvest residues spread on the site,or WTH was carried out, with the residues collected into piles at the site for six - nine months prior to removal. Unsurprisingly, thinning appears to affect the soil carbon content much less than clear-cutting; the effect tends to be proportional to the thinning intensity.

Ved tynning og gjødsling kan andelen sagtømmer i det hogstmodne bestandet øke, og samtidig kan tynning være ønskelig for å lage stabile bestand som kan overholdes utover normal hogstmodenhetsalder. The decomposing residues released a substantial amount of nitrogen which was gradually reflected in the soil water at 30 cm soil depth. Ferretti, M., Calderisi, M., Marchetto, A., Waldner, P., Thimonier, A., Jonard, M., Cools, N., Rautio, P., Clarke, N., Hansen, K., Merilä, P. P., Žlindra, D., Clarke, N., Verstraeten, A., Lazdins, A., Schimming, C., Iacoban, C., Lindroos, A., Vanguelova, E., Benham, S., Meesenburg, H., Nicolas, M., Kowalska, A., Apuhtin, V., Napa, U., Lachmanová, Z., Kristoefel, F., Bleeker, A., Ingerslev, M., Vesterdal, L., Molina, J., Fischer, U., Seidling, W., Jonard, M., O'Dea, P., Johnson, J., Fischer, R. How should intellectual property rights be protected, while improving access to data? Which quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures have been used and for how long? toalett hekte kit Based on intensive forest monitoring data, critical loads for acidification and eutrophication as well as their exceeedances were modelled for 107 Level II plots using the simple mass balance approach.

Uttak av hogstrester (GROT) gir råstoff til bioenergi, som kan brukes til å erstatte fossile brensler. G., Etzold, S., Schmitt, M., Marchetto, A., Rautio, P., Derome, K., Nieminen, T. A considerable increase in the NO3-N concen- tration also in the WTH-removal areas in the second year following harvest suggests an increase in N availability from decomposing fine roots and/or soil organic matter. Dynamic modelling using the VSD model was carried out for 77 plots using different deposition scenarios.Plots with at least 10 years of observations from the ICP Forests moni- toring network were used. Effects of forest residue harvesting on short-term changes in soil solution chemistry. Impact of phosphorus on rhizosphere organic anions of wheat at different growth stages under field conditions. doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plx008 farene ved dating en bipolar mann Phosphorus (P) is one of the main limiting factors for crop productivity while rhizosphere organic anions have been hypothesized to play an important role in P acquisition. Short-term ecological consequences of removal of harvesting residues for bioenergy from forests in Norway (Lecture). Short-term effects of whole-tree harvesting on understory plant species diversity and cover in two Norway spruce sites in southern Norway. Short–term effects of whole–tree harvesting on understory plant species diversity and cover in two Norway spruce sites in southern Norway (Lecture). Tracing air pollution and climate change effects on forest ecosystems: trend and risk assessments, Luxembourg. In conclusion, long-term trends of soil solution DOC reflected the interactions between controls acting at local (soil and vegetation properties) and regional (atmospheric deposition of SO42− and inorganic N) scales. We hypothesized that the dicots canola and tuber-producing potato and the monocot barley would respond differently under various P availabilities. Removing forest harvesting residuals: effects on biodiversity and species composition in Norwegian forests (Poster). Some changes are necessary to take account of specific conditions e.g. For example, it is stated in Point 4 of Article 17 of the Renewable Energy Directive that biofuels and bioliquids shall not be obtained from land that was continuously forested in January 2008 and is no longer continuously forested. Also, in Point C7 of Annex V, the 20-year period for calculating carbon stock changes is completely unrealistic for forestry (although this refers to land-use change and it could be argued that felling is not land-use change if the land is used for forest afterwards; this should be clarified).Trends were assessed for the upper mineral soil (10– 20 cm, 104 plots) and subsoil (40–80 cm, 162 plots). Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 33(3): 299-307. Sampling in a long-term field experiment was carried out in order to understand the impact of long-term differences in P fertilization on secretion of organic anions under field conditions. Rhizosphere Organic Anions Play a Minor Role in Improving Crop Species' Ability to Take Up Residual Phosphorus (P) in Agricultural Soils Low in P Availability. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01664 gratis topp datingside Many arable lands have accumulated large reserves of residual phosphorus (P) and a relatively large proportion of soil P is less available for uptake by plants. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, RAI Amsterdam Exhibition and Convention Centre, Amsterdam. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 31(8): 766-776. Short-term effects of wood ash return to forest (Poster). Landscape management and design for food, bioenergy and the bioeconomy: methodology and governance aspects, Gøteborg. Win RHIZO and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry results suggested that under low P availability, canola developed longer roots and exhibited the fastest root exudation rate for citric acid. These aspects of the Renewable Energy Directive are already problematic if forest biomass is to be used for biofuels or bioliquids.The results suggest a long-time lag between emission abatement and changes in soil solution acidity and underline the importance of long-term monitor- ing in evaluating ecosystem response to decreases in deposition. P., Žlindra, D., Vesterdal, L., Benham, S., Elustondo, D., Nicolas, M., Waldner, P. We calculated site-specific annual input-output budgets for sulphate (SO4) and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN NO3- N NH4-N) for 17 European ICP IM sites in 1990–2012. Conflicting interests of ecosystem services: Multi-criteria modelling and indirect evaluation of trade-offs between monetary and non-monetary measures. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.20Fjære, S., Clarke, N., Nybakken, L. doi: 10.1080/02827581.2016.1141231Gundersen, V., Clarke, N., Dramstad, W. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 31(3): 323-334. I., Nordbakken, J., Lange, H., Røsberg, I., Kjønaas, O. Pile residue harvesting on unfrozen and snow-free soil caused more damage to the forest floor in the steep terrain at the western site compared to the eastern site. Vegetation plots in the eastern site were established and analysed before WTH and SOH in 2008 and reanalysed after harvesting in 2010, 20. online andakter for unge dating par Miljødirektoratet utarbeidet i 2014 et kunnskapsgrunnlag for hvordan vi kan omstille Norge til et lavutslippssamfunn (Miljødirektoratet 2014). Denne rapporten er en del av neste fase av dette arbeidet, som er å utdype analysen av mulige tiltak og virkemidler. Molecular and biochemical analysis of plant root exudates response to phosphorus starvation (Lecture). Wang, Y., Haugslien, S., Almvik, M., Clarke, N., Øgaard, A. The soil carbon content appears to be higher after selection cutting than after clear-cutting.Clarke, N., Fjellstad, W., Nordbakken, J., Økland, T. Temporal trends for input (deposition) and output (runoff water) fluxes and the net retention/net release of SO4 and TIN were also analysed. doi: 10.1080/02827581.2015.1099725 dating royal albert kina Increased forest biomass production for bioenergy will have various consequences for landscape scenery, depending on both the landscape features present and the character and intensity of the silvicultural and harvesting methods used. In the western site vegetation plots were established before WTH and SOH in 2010 and reanalysed after harvesting in 20 (and planned for 2016). Pre-as well as post-harvesting species abundances of all species in each vegetation plot were each time recorded as percentage cover (vertical projection) and subplot frequency. Her beskriver vi, på oppdrag fra Miljødirektoratet, et utvalg klimatiltak i skog. Studies comparing effects of whole-tree harvest with those of stem-only harvest have tended to show smaller carbon contents in the mineral soil after whole-tree harvest than after stem-only harvest, although once again results vary greatly.Bulk deposition of NO3 and NH4 decreased significantly at 60–80% (concentrations) and 40–60% (fluxes) of the sites. We applied trend analysis at two levels: (1) to the entire European dataset and (2) to the individual time series and related trends with plot characteristics, i.e., soil and vegetation properties, soil solution chemistry and atmospheric deposition loads. Further development of the standard for sustainable forestry is required, in order to take into account aspects that are not yet covered (see above under Point 3.5).

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