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Note that if your device supports Wi-Fi, it is most likely affected.During our initial research, we discovered ourselves that Android, Linux, Apple, Windows, Open BSD, Media Tek, Linksys, and others, are all affected by some variant of the attacks.

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For example, HTTPS was previously bypassed in non-browser software, in Apple's i OS and OS X, in Android apps, in Android apps again, in banking apps, and even in VPN apps.

Our main attack is against the 4-way handshake of the WPA2 protocol.

All our attacks against WPA2 use a novel technique called a key reinstallation attack (KRACK): In a key reinstallation attack, the adversary tricks a victim into reinstalling an already-in-use key.

This is achieved by manipulating and replaying cryptographic handshake messages. Essentially, to guarantee security, a key should only be installed and used once.

Each time it receives this message, it will reinstall the same encryption key, and thereby reset the incremental transmit packet number (nonce) and receive replay counter used by the encryption protocol.

We show that an attacker can force these nonce resets by collecting and replaying retransmissions of message 3 of the 4-way handshake.Our detailed research paper can already be downloaded.As a proof-of-concept we executed a key reinstallation attack against an Android smartphone. Concretely, attackers can use this novel attack technique to read information that was previously assumed to be safely encrypted.This can be abused to steal sensitive information such as credit card numbers, passwords, chat messages, emails, photos, and so on.When the victim reinstalls the key, associated parameters such as the incremental transmit packet number (i.e. Unfortunately, we found this is not guaranteed by the WPA2 protocol.

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