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In order to distinguish pictures from pictorial signs, it is necessary to notice that language has two primary levels of structure, which the French linguist André Martinet referred to as the “double articulation” of language: the grammar as a system for mapping—establishing a system of relations between—sound and meaning.
These levels of structure admit of several subdivisions, any one of which may be captured in a writing system.
Pictures, similarly, may represent events but do not represent language and hence are not a form of writing.
Indeed, the history of writing is in part a matter of the discovery and representation of these structural levels of spoken language in the attempt to construct an efficient, general, and economical writing system capable of serving a range of socially valuable functions.
Literacy is a matter of competence with a writing system and with the specialized functions that written language serves in a particular society.
The basic unit of the meaning system is called a and plurality.
Grammatically related words make up clauses that express larger units of meaning.
Phonemes may be further analyzed in terms of a set of underlying distinctive features, features specifying the ways the sound is physically produced by passing breath through the throat and positioning the tongue and lips.
Phonemes may be thought of as roughly equivalent to the sound segments known as consonants and vowels, and combinations of these segments make up syllables.
Yet writing is not merely the transcription of speech; writing frequently involves the use of special forms of language, such as those involved in literary and scientific works, that would not be produced orally.
In any linguistic community the written language is a distinct and special dialect; usually there is more than one written dialect.
Both speaking and writing depend upon the underlying structures of language.
Consequently, writing cannot ordinarily be read by someone not familiar with the linguistic structure underlying the oral form of the language.
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